The 28th Conference of the Parties (COP28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) took place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) from November 30 to December 12, 2023. The main objective of COP28 was to identify global solutions for limiting global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius in line with the Paris Agreement’s goal of mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts. The conference aimed to inform countries’ preparations for revised and more ambitious Nationally Determined Contributions (national climate plans) due by 2025. COP28 also emphasized accelerating the ongoing green transition and promoting sustainable practices in various sectors.

 Key Areas of Focus:

COP28 focused on several key areas, including:

1. Tripling Renewable Energy Output: COP28 aimed to triple renewable energy output to 11,000 gigawatts by 2030. This ambitious target aimed to drive the transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy sources.

2. Climate Finance Reform: Another crucial goal was to create a comprehensive transformation of climate finance reform. COP28 sought to ensure that financial resources are allocated effectively to address climate change challenges.

3. Fast-tracking the Energy Transition: COP28 emphasized the importance of fast-tracking the energy transition, fixing climate finance mechanisms, and placing nature, people, lives, and livelihoods at the heart of climate action.


COP28 brought together participants from around the world, including government officials, policymakers, delegates, experts, and representatives from various organizations and institutions. The conference provided a platform for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and collective action towards a sustainable future.

 Schedule and Agenda:

The COP28 conference consisted of a diverse range of activities, including daily schedules, thematic programs, and high-level segments.

1. Daily Schedules and Overview: The conference had daily schedules and a daily program, providing a comprehensive overview of the activities planned for each day. These schedules helped participants navigate through the conference and make the most of their time.

2. Thematic Program: A thematic program was organized, focusing on key areas related to climate change. Sessions such as the ECD Pavilion, The Women’s Pavilion – Humanitarian Hub, and the UAE Pavilion addressed specific themes and provided valuable insights into various aspects of climate action.

3. High-Level Segment: A high-level segment for COP28 was held, including the World Climate Action Summit. This segment brought together leaders, policymakers, and experts to discuss and showcase global climate initiatives and commitments.

4. Informal Stocktaking Plenary: The COP28 UAE Informal Stocktaking Plenary took place on the opening day, followed by the World Climate Action Summit. These sessions provided an opportunity to review progress, exchange ideas, and mobilize action towards addressing climate change.

5. Other Agenda Items: The COP28 agenda covered important topics such as health, relief, recovery, peace, finance, and more. The discussions and negotiations during the conference contributed to shaping global climate policies and actions.

 Key Discussions and Decisions:

During COP28, several key discussions and decisions emerged, highlighting the significance of the conference in addressing climate change.

1. Landmark Deal for Climate Disaster Impacts: On the first day of COP28, a landmark deal was reached to assist the world’s poorest and most vulnerable countries in coping with the irreversible impacts of climate disasters. This agreement received a standing ovation from delegates, emphasizing its significance in addressing the urgent needs of these nations.

2. Focus on Discussions and Policy Decisions: The discussions and policy decisions held during COP28 played a critical role in shaping the conference’s outcomes. These deliberations addressed various aspects related to climate change mitigation, adaptation, and finance, driving global action on climate change.

3. Future of Fossil Fuels: One of the most challenging topics of discussion at COP28 revolved around the future role of fossil fuels. The conference addressed whether countries should commit to phasing out fossil fuel usage, sparking intense debates and negotiations among participating nations.

4. Market Influence of Climate Negotiations: COP28 acknowledged the significant market influence of climate negotiations. Business leaders and stakeholders closely monitored the signals emerging from the conference, recognizing the importance of aligning their strategies with the outcomes of COP28.

5. Review of Past COP Outcomes: As COP28 commenced in Dubai, an assessment of the major outcomes of the UN’s last five COPs was conducted. This review provided insights into the progress made and highlighted the need for continued action and stronger commitments.

 Significance of COP28:

COP28 held in Dubai had significant importance in addressing the pressing issue of climate change and its impacts. The conference showcased global cooperation and commitment to combating climate change. It catalyzed accelerating climate action worldwide and emphasized the urgency of taking bold steps to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The operationalization and funding of the fund for vulnerable countries also highlighted the conference’s commitment to supporting those dealing with climate impacts. COP28 provided a platform for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and collective action, contributing to shaping global climate policies and actions.

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About the Author


Silver Lining For the Needy Initiative (SLNI) is an NGO in special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

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